CELESTIN SEBAHIRE : SINANDIKA NDASOMA KURI 1984 “NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR”

INTRODUCTION YA SINANDIKA NDASOMA KURI 1984.

1984 (Igihumbi Kimwe Magana Cyenda Mirongo Inani na Kane) ni yo nkuru-mpimbano ndende izwi kurusha izindi mu zanditswe na George Orwell, kikaba ari igitabo yanditse mu mwaka w’1949. Iki gitabo cyasohotse cyitwa Nineteen Eighty-Four mu cyongereza ; kikaba cyarasohotse mu gifaransa cyitwa Mille Neuf Cent Quatre-Vingt-Quatre. Iki gitabo kiri mu byo bita les romans de la dystopie hakaba n’ababyita romans d’anticipation, ni ukuvuga inkuru iba ari impimbano, ariko ugasanga ibiyikubiyemo byose birashyize birabaye mu bizima bwa buri munsi. Akenshi ibyo bintu bigaragara uwabyanditse atakiriho cg bikaba hashize igihe kirekire nyuma y’uko byandikwa.

Ibivugwamo birabera i Londere mu myaka 30 nyuma y’intambara yakoreshejwemo intwaro za kirimbuzi hagati y’ibihugu byo mu burasirazuba bw’isi n’ibyo mu burengerazuba. Iyo ntambara mpimbano bikaba bivugwa ko yabaye mu myaka y’ahagana mu w’1950. Nyuma y’iyo ntambara hagiyeho ubutegetsi bw’igitugu kitavugwa ; aho uburenganzira bwo kugira icyo uvuga butari bukibaho, ibitekerezo byose by’abantu bikagenzurwa ku buryo bwitondewe kandi bukaze, mu mihanda yose no mu tuyira hakaba hari hamanitse amashusho n’impapuro bibwira buri muhisi n’umugenzi biti : « Mutware Mukuru -Big Brother- arakureba » ; mu cyongereza byaravugaga biti : « Big Brother is watching you » naho mu gifaransa biti : « Big Brother vous regarde ».

Muri buri mahuriro y’imihanda hari ishusho ry’igihanga gifite ubwanwa bw’umukara cyahoraga kiguhanze kandi kigukurikiza amaso, no ku rukuta rwari imbere yo kwa Wisnton cyari gihari. Inyandiko ivuga ngo « Big Brother arakureba » cg « Mutware Mukuru arakureba » igasa n’ihora yibutsa Winston ko amaso yirabura ya cya gihanga yarimo kwinjira mu bwonko no mu bwenge bwe akareba ibirimo kububeramo. Ku kayira hari indi shusho yahuhwaga n’umuyaga yari yanditseho amagambo agira ati « ANGSOC ». Hirya gato Winston yitegereje ukuntu kajugujugu zagendaga zicengera hagati y’ibisenge by’amazu, nka bimwe by’urusazi rutuma ku mazirantoki, zikaba zaragendaga zikinjiza uruzuru rwazo mu madirishya y’abaturage, zikitegereza ibibera imbere, nyuma zarangiza zikongera zikaguruka zikanyaruka nk’umwambi zikagenda zikarenga. Izo kajugujugu zabaga ari iz’amarondo yabaga ashinzwe kugenzura ibyo abantu babaga barimo gukora. Ayo marondo ariko ubwa yo ntiyari agize icyo atwaye, ugereranyije n’ibyo polisi yagenzuraga ibitekerezo yakoraga.

Georges Orwell yari muntu ki?

Georges Orwell ubundi ku mazina ye y’ukuri witwa Eric Arthur BLAIR, yavutse mu mwaka w’1903 mu bihugu byitwaga ibihugu by’Ubuhindi mu igihe byari bikiri mu bukoloni bw’Abongereza. Yize ahitwa Eton. Uyu mugabo yakoze mu gipolisi cy’umwami w’abami muri Birimaniya, ibirebana n’ubwo buzima akaba yarabyanditse mu gitabo cye yise « Amateka yanjye muri Birimaniya ». Nyuma yagarutse mu Burayi, agerageza kutungwa n’ibyo yanditse. Mu myaka yakurikiyeho yabanje kuba i Parisi aho yandagariye bitoroshye, nyuma asubira mu Bwongereza aba umwarimu. Ubwo buzima bwe yabwanditseho igitabo yise « Ubuzima bw’akaga i Parisi n’i Londere » Dans la dèche à Paris et à Londres. Mu w’i 1936, yagiye mu gisirikare mu ntambara yo muri Espagne ayikomerekeramo.
Mu ntambara ya 2 y’isi yabaye umunyamakuru kuri BBC, nyuma aza kuyobora ikinyamakuru kitwa « The Tribune », yanabaye kandi umunyamakuru wa « The Observer » akaba yari agihagarariye mu Bufaransa no mu Budage. Nyuma yaje guhitanwa n’indwara y’igituntu muri mutarama 1950.

Orwell, wari umwanditsi, agakora ibiganiro kuri radio, akaba n’umunyamakuru wibanda ku bya politiki, yanditse ibitabo byinshi kandi binyuranye, bigaragaza aho ahagaze hamwe n’ibiterezo bye. Mu bitabo bye bizwi cyane harimo inkuru ze ndende ebyiri z’impimbano zizwi ku isi hose ari zo 1984 yanditse mu cyongereza akakita « Nineteen Eight four » nyuma kikaza guhindurwa mu gifaransa cyitwa « Mille neuf cent quatre-vingt-quatre » Ikindi kitwa « Ifamu y’inyamaswa » cg « Urwuri rw’inyamaswa » yanditse mu cyongerreza ku izina rya « Animal Farm » kikaza guhindurwa mu gifaransa kikitwa « La ferme des animaux ». Muri ibyo bitabo yanditse yamagana akaduruvayo ka politiki kakunze kugaragara mu kinyejana cya 20, yamaganye kandi amarorerwa akorwa n’abategetsi b’abanyagitugu kirenze imyuvire, anagaya ku buryo budasubirwaho ingorane ziterwa no gushaka kugena uko abantu bagomba gutekereza ibyo twakwita mu gifaransa la manipulation de la pensée.